Coronaviruses are a large family of RNA viruses that can infect humans and several types of animals. In humans, coronaviruses can cause some diseases – from mild forms of acute respiratory infections before SARS. Circulation is currently known.
Among the population of four coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63 and -HKU1), which usually cause disease upper respiratory tract of mild to moderate severity. Viruses of this family can also create several diseases in animals.
We want to study the HCoV-229E virus in detail. It is known that he lives at low temperature and low humidity. In some people, it can cause a cold, while in others, an acute respiratory infection manifested in the form of pneumonia. In the human body, the virus has a pronounced reaction to the cells of the bronchial epithelium.
The virus is likely to elude the action of factors of the innate immune response and can block the interferon system.The virus can be transmitted from person to person. Bats can also be a source of infection. It is important to note that it is in the spring or winter that the virus is most active, that is, in a particular season. Therefore, it is essential at this time to take care of your immunity and take care of precautions.
WHO recommends paying attention to specific groups of people who may transmit the infection. Do not contact people who come from a city where there is an outbreak of the virus, namely if they have coughs, fever, heavy breathing. Keep your distance when talking with people who have previously communicated with patients on this virus.
There is a particular group of people who are in danger, it is these people who have a severe illness, people with weak immunity, such as infants, and people who are over the sixties, as well as those who have chronic diseases, respond to them. Those who suffer from diabetes and kidney failure are on this list.
Infection can proceed as practically asymptomatic, and with upper respiratory tract damage, with the rapid development of pneumonia, respiratory insufficiency, ARDS, as well as the development of septic shock and multiple organ failure. Adult people can get sick, there are many such situations, but it happens that children get too ill. If the infection is transmitted from person to person, then the incubation period lasts two weeks. It all starts with the fact that the temperature rises to 38–39 ° C, weakness, and a runny nose are also present. You begin to sweat heavily, frequent headaches, dry throat, and dry cough. Also, the virus can cause nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, diarrhea. When the virus reaches the verge, it is impossible to lower the temperature; it is difficult to breathe, there is no air, the heartbeat intensifies, pain in the chest. In this regard, a disease such as pneumonia begins to develop. In the lungs, the doctor listens very well for wheezing. When radiography is observed, infiltration in the peripheral departments of the pulmonary fields. If the disease progresses, the affected areas will become even more significant.
In peripheral blood, leukopenia, lymphopenia, an increase in the relative number of neutrophils, and thrombocytopenia are noted. In a biochemical blood test, an increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase.
First of all, they will conduct a conversation with you. You will be asked if you visited the place where the HCoV-229E outbreak was detected or if you had contact with those who were sick with this virus. After this, they will take tests for the laboratory. The rapid test, which is the most effective and fastest test, detects antigen in the cells of the nasal mucosa in RIF and PCR.
Patients who suspect a virus and who are not sick with pneumonia also test for the presence of a bacterial infection. Smears are always taken from all airways, from the nose, throat, trachea, alveoli, and ending with the bronchi. In all patients, studies with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are conducted on all known pathogens of respiratory infections: type A influenza viruses (subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and avian influenza viruses in countries where circulation was recorded among microorganisms in the bird population). H5N1, H7N9, etc.), Type B influenza viruses, RSV, parainfluenza viruses, rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, human metapneumovirus, and coronaviruses, do not cause SARS. And such studies are carried out over several days to achieve an accurate result. It is in the later stages that the virus can be detected because then it behaves more aggressively. In addition to taking smears from the respiratory tract for analysis, doctors can take blood, urine, and feces for review.
Analyzes are taken from different places. What is this? The fact is that if in different places, the test shows a plus, then the virus is confirmed, and if only in one place, then doctors will look for the cause of the illness.
Hygiene is the first way to protect yourself from bacteria, so wash your hands as often as possible and preferably with soap. Why do you think this is? Here is the answer. There are many bacteria on your hands; if you treat your hands with a product that contains alcohol or soap, then the bacteria will die.
If you see that a person who is close to you, while he is coughing, sneezing and has a runny nose, then move away. You must understand that when a person sneezes or coughs, he throws microscopic drops into the air, in which there is a virus when you breathe, they can get into your body.
Being in crowded places, you touch your hands to the surface, not thinking about how many bacteria are there, so it is recommended to wear gloves and not feel the eyes or face with your hands, since all these bacteria will get on the skin and, as a result, in the body.
If you are the person who is sneezing and coughing, then please do this not in your hand, but a napkin, since there will be microbes on your hands, and you will spread them further, and the towel can be thrown away.
If you notice that you feel bad, then stay at home, so you protect not only yourself but also other people.
Also, avoid close contacts such as hugs and handshakes; in return, you can say hello.
How to handle stress
If you are sad and not having fun in isolation, you can call your friends or play developing games at home with your family.
Do not forget that you need to eat right, lead a healthy lifestyle, play sports, cook healthy food.
In no case do not drink alcohol so that you distract yourself from problems, it is better to talk with psychologists or with someone from your family if it is difficult for you.
It happens that what is shown on TV causes fear in you, then it’s better not to watch the news, but to do something useful, it will distract you from evil thoughts.